A List of Significant Academic Definitions of Culture

Edgar Schein (1990) says " Culture is the pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has invented, discovered or developed in learning to cope with its problems of external adaption and internal integration, and have worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems".

Hofstede (1994) offered "The collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one organisation from another."

Payne (1996) "Culture is about values, and developing systems and symbols that reinforce and perpetuate those values, so that people behave reliably and predictably to achieve the culture's purposes."

IRS Management Review (1997) "Culture is the commonly held values, attitudes and beliefs that distinguish one group from another, and the systems and symbols that perpetuate the culture."

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